• Afrophobic hate crime



    With the exception of hate crimes based on general xenophobic and racist motives, Afrophobia is the most common motive found among reported hate crimes in Sweden. Nevertheless, there is a lack of more detailed knowledge on Afrophobic hate crime. This report has been written at the instruction of the Swedish government, to develop the knowledge base on Afrophobic hate crime in order to improve the opportunities to prevent these offences.

  • School Survey on Crime 2021



    The overall purpose of this survey is to describe trends over time in self-reported exposure to crime and participation in crime among students in year 9. Year 9 is the final year of compulsory education in Sweden, with students aged 15–16. The report is descriptive in nature and therefore does not provide answers as to underlying factors behind being a victim of crime or committing crime. More detailed analyses and explanations of the results
    may instead be presented in other more in-depth studies.

  • Swedish Crime Survey 2022



    Citizens’ victimisation, fear of crime, confidence in the criminal justice system and crime victims’ contact with the criminal justice system have long been a focus of Swedish crime policy. Therefore, detailed knowledge of which groups are victims more than others, which groups are adversely affected by fear of crime, and public confidence in the criminal justice system are of value to crime policy makers. The Swedish Crime Survey is an important source of information for this purpose.

  • Illegal drug markets in Sweden



    A study of smuggling, street dealing, internet sales and buyers.
  • Crime prevention
    in Sweden



    To better describe crime prevention work in Sweden,
    the report is divided into five chapters:
    • Crime prevention work – National initiatives.
    • Brå’s development work in 2021.
    • Regional crime prevention work.
    • Local crime prevention work.
    • Final conclusions and discussion.

  • Welfare fraud against
    municipalities and regions



    This report examines incorrect payments from Swedish municipalities and regions to companies and non-profit organisations active in the welfare sector.
  • Exploitation of a child through the purchase of a sexual act



    Since the introduction of the offence, the number of reported sex purchase
    crimes has increased steadily, especially over the past two years.

  • Purchase of sexual services



    Since the introduction of the offence, the number of reported sex purchase
    crimes has increased steadily, especially over the past two years.

  • Youth intimate partner violence



    Preventing intimate partner violence among young people may be viewed as
    part of a broader field of violence prevention.

  • Strategic offences among youth in the 2010s



    In this report, Brå continues with the study of so-called strategic offences – i.e. the offence types in a debut conviction that best predict continued high-frequency offending.
  • Consistency and relevant considerations in the sentencing of criminal cases



    In this report, Brå continues with the study of the sentencing consistency, but also examines which factors are taken into consideration when sentencing, and how this varies between groups of judges and between groups of courts.
  • Youth robberies



    This report shows that the number of reported robberies against people under 18 as well as the self-reported exposure to robbery among young people have both increased in recent years.
  • Effectiveness of Street Lighting in Preventing Crime in Public Places



    Does improved lighting reduce levels of crime? What do the strongest evaluations tell us? These questions are answered in this systematic review, which examines the strongest available research to date.
  • Hate crimes reported to the police in 2020



    This report presents Brå’s statistics on offences reported to the police in 2020 where hate was the underlying motive. The statistics are based on reported crimes that the police classified as hate crimes and where Brå identified hate as the underlying motive.
  • The Politician's Safety Survey 2021



    This summary presents the overall results of the Politician’s Safety Survey (PTU), 2012–2020. The purpose of the Politician's Safety Survey is to measure the extent and consequences of harassment, threats, and violence experienced by elected representatives who are exposed in their capacity as elected representatives.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2021



    This summary presents the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) 2021. The results of the report are summarised and broken down into the following areas of inquiry: victimisation, fear of crime, confidence in the criminal justice system, and crime victims' contact with the criminal justice system.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2021



    Citizens’ victimisation, fear of crime, confidence in the criminal justice system and crime victims’ contact with the criminal justice system have long been a focus of Swedish crime policy. Therefore, detailed knowledge of which groups are victims more than others, which groups are adversely affected by fear of crime, and public confidence in the criminal justice system are of value to crime policy makers. The Swedish Crime Survey is an important source of information for this purpose.

  • Registered offending among persons of native and non-native background



    Brå has studied how those registered as suspected offenders are distributed across different groups based on native and non-native background.
  • Financing of terrorism



    During the past ten years, a court verdict was reached in just four cases involving terrorist financing. This report, however, is mainly concerned with the measures taken by the authorities in order to counter the suspected financing of terrorism.
  • Crime prevention in Sweden



    During the course of 2020, a range of new national initiatives were introduced, with both the primary and indirect aims of strengthening crime prevention. This report provides a picture of crime prevention in Sweden and the needs for 2021.
  • Gun homicide in Sweden and other European countries



    Viewed from a long-term perspective, it is well-established that, at least in Western Europe, homicide levels increased during the period 1960-1990 and have since declined. In Sweden, however, this downward trend has stalled, and since 2013 levels of homicide have once again been on the rise. This study compares recent trends in Sweden with homicide levels and trends in 22 other European countries with a focus on the period since the year 2000.
  • Evaluation of the Sexual Crimes Group in North Stockholm



    In 2019, the North Stockholm Police District set up a special investigation team, the Sexual Crimes Group, which only investigates rape cases. This evaluation studies whether the introduction of Group has led to better investigative work in rape cases.
  • Islamophobic hate crime



    A study of the characteristics of Islamophobic hate crime in Sweden – the nature of the offences, the people who have been subjected to them, who the perpetrators are (when possible), and the consequences of the crimes.
  • The impact of the pandemic on the workflow within the legal chain



    This report features an analysis of the effects in Sweden of the pandemic on the inflow and outflow of cases in the Police Authority, the Prosecution Authority and the courts.
  • Coordinated measures for clients on parole



    In April 2018, the Swedish Prison and Probation Service was commissioned by the government to conduct a trial programme with so-called reintegration groups. The purpose of the trial programme was that the probation service and other actors would be able to make plans at an early stage and facilitate the reintegration of clients into society by means of coordinated measures.
  • Sharing information between police and social services in crime preventive work with children and young people



    A study of the preconditions for sharing information between police, social services and other actors in order to prevent crime.
  • Processed hate crimes



    The presentation of processing decision types on the basis of motive and type of crime provides more detailed knowledge about the legal system's treatment of hate crime. This report is an examination of processing decision types for those reported offences for which the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has identified as featuring a hate crime motive during the years 2013-2016 and 2018.
  • Self-reported exposure to hate crime



    The purpose of this report is to further our knowledge of self-reported exposure to hate crime by presenting previously unpublished data.
  • Swimming pools and libraries



    An analysis of the prevalence of crimes and disorderly conduct at swimming pools and libraries in Sweden. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a basis for the government in its deliberations on whether swimming pools and libraries should be encompassed by a regulation on injunctions.
  • School Survey on Crime 2019



    This summary presents the overall results of the School Survey on Crime 2019. The overall purpose of this survey is to describe trends in self-reported exposure to crime and participation in crime among students in year 9, which is the last year of compulsory education in Sweden with students aged 15–16.

  • Swedish Crime Survey 2020



    This summary presents the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) 2020. The results of the report are summarised and broken down into the following areas of inquiry: victimisation, fear of crime, confidence in the criminal justice system, and crime victims’ contact with the criminal justice system.
  • 8+2



    In order to schedule working hours to better match operational needs, the police have developed a new scheduling model, referred to as 8+2. Brå has followed the pilot project in eight districts.
  • Reported and cleared rapes in Europe



    Measuring and comparing the incidence of rape in different countries can provide knowledge which can be used to combat such crime. However, this requires that the available statistics provide comparable data from the different countries.
  • Fast Track Legal Proceedings



    A pilot scheme for fast-tracked criminal cases, also known as Fast Track Legal Proceedings, was conducted in the Stockholm North police district in 2018 and 2019.
  • Homicide and mental illness



    This report describes diagnosed mental health disorders among perpetrators of homicide in Sweden between 2005/06 and 2017.
  • The new consent law in practice



    On 1 July 2018, changes were made to the legislation concerning rape, meaning that the law is now based upon the absence of consent instead of the occurrence of violence, threats or a particularly vulnerable situation. The new law was welcomed by many people as constituting an important societal signal, but there were also concerns (particularly from lawyers) that it would be difficult to apply.
  • Body cameras



    An evaluation of the use of body cameras in Police Region Stockholm.
  • Homicide in the criminal milieu



    A study of homicides arising from conflicts in the criminal milieu in the period 2005-2017.
  • Money laundering offences



    A study of how the Act on Penalties for Money Laundering Offences has been applied within the criminal justice system during the period 2015-2017.
  • Indicators of trends in sexual offences 2005–2017



    The number of sexual offences reported to the police has increased steadily over the past few decades. In recent years, there has also been an increase in self-reported exposure to sexual offences according to the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS).
  • The Politician's Safety Survey



    The purpose of the Politician's Safety Survey (PTU in Swedish) is to measure the extent and consequences of harassment, threats, and violence experienced by elected representatives who are exposed in their capacity as elected representatives.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2019



    This summary presents the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) for 2019. The results of the report are summarised and broken down into the following areas of enquiry: victimisation, fear of crime, confdence in the criminal justice system, and crime victims’ contacts with the criminal justice system.
  • Cultures of silence



    It has become more difficult to persuade people to report and testify regarding criminal offences. This report aims to answer two overall questions: what motivates the silence and how can more people be persuaded to provide information to the criminal justice system?
  • Hate Crime 2018



    Statistics on police reports, recorded in 2018, with identifed hate crime motives.
  • Quality of statistics regarding persons suspected of offences



    What does total reporting of persons suspected of offences entail, and how does this population differ from the population of persons suspected of offences who continue to be suspected of an offence following a completed investigation?
  • Gross violation of a woman’s integrity



    A study of the offence of gross violation of a woman’s integrity in the criminal justice system and an analysis of what might have caused a visible decrease in the numbers of reported, cleared, and convicted offences.
  • Rape – from report to conviction



    Brå has studied the characteristics of reports of rape of adult women, how the investigative work is conducted, and the reasons why so many investigations are dropped. The courts’ operations are also explored. Finally, a smaller study has been conducted concerning whether different groups of persons suspected of rape are treated equally by the criminal justice system.
  • Invasive photography



    A study of how the law on photographic activity constituting invasion of privacy is applied in the Swedish criminal justice system.
  • Anti-Semitic hate crime



    What forms does anti-Semitic hate crime take in Sweden, and who commits these offences? These are the two central questions examined by the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention in this report.
  • Lethal violence in Sweden 1990–2017



    This study describes the characteristics of lethal violence in Sweden today (2014-2017) and its development from the beginning of the 1990s.
  • Crime prevention in Sweden



    The purpose of this report is to describe a view of crime prevention in Sweden in 2018 – on the local, regional and national levels – as well as identifying the development needs for 2019.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2018



    This summary presents the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) for 2018. The results of the report are summarised and broken down into the following areas of enquiry: victimisation, fear of crime, confidence in the criminal justice system, and crime victims’ contacts with the criminal justice system.
  • Shootings in criminal milieux



    Lethal gun violence in criminal milieux has increased over time. Therefore, Brå has conducted a study of shootings in criminal milieux. The study is based primarily on interviews with individuals who have been active in the milieux where gun violence occurs.
  • The police's work with police-citizen partnerships



    Brå has followed the police-citizen partnership work in four selected areas and evaluated its performance. The purpose of the evaluation is to furnish the police with a picture of the police-citizen partnership work and provide guidance for future development and improvement of this work. 
  • School Survey on Crime 2017



    The overall purpose of the School Survey on Crime is to collect and analyse self-reported data from year nine students regarding their exposure to crime and their participation in crime and other deviant behaviour.
  • Effects of the increase in the minimum sentence for violation of integrity offences



    The amendment of the provision regarding gross violation of a woman's integrity resulted in more stringent minimum penalties and an expansion of the types of acts that can together constitute a gross violation of integrity.
  • Limitations of investigation



    This study asks how limitations of investigation are put into practice in Sweden and to what extent the decisions come into conflict with other central goals of the justice system.
  • CCTV and Crime Prevention



    This systematic review examines the best available research up to this point to answer the question: does CCTV prevent crime?
  • Perceptions of the justice system in socially disadvantaged areas



    Implementing effective and appropriately focused efforts in socially disadvantaged areas requires sound knowledge about the underlying situation, not in the least based on the residents’ own experiences. Accordingly, the Government has requested that Brå investigate the relationship to the justice system in socially disadvantaged areas.
  • Crime prevention work
    in Sweden



    During 2017, a large number of local crime prevention measures were undertaken by the police and municipalities, as well as by parties in the commercial sphere and civil society. The purpose of this report is to provide a view of crime prevention work in Sweden.
  • Perceptions of the justice system in socially disadvantaged areas



    Socially disadvantaged areas are characterized by, among other things, a large percentage of residents with low socioeconomic status, and criminal elements that have significant impact on the local community. In this report, Brå has studied confidence in the justice system, and the sense of safety among residents in areas which the police identify as socially disadvantaged.
  • Combating unlawful
    influence in sports



    This study addresses harassment, threats, violence, and corruption in organised football, ice hockey, basketball, and bandy. The study focuses specifically on unlawful influence, i.e. events where the victim perceives that the purpose was to influence them when exercising their profession.
  • Crime against the elderly



    The overall purpose of this survey has been to shed light, on a national level, on older people' exposure to various types of offences and their insecurity and concern about crime. At the same time as the percentage of older people in the population continues to increase, knowledge about the victimisation of this demographic group has been limited. The goal of the study, which has been undertaken on Brå's own initiative, is to contribute much-needed fundamental information for future work to prevent crime against older people and create greater security.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2017



    This report presents the overall results of the 2017 Swedish Crime Survey (SCS, or NTU in Swedish). The survey covers victimisation, unsafety, confidence in the criminal justice system, and crime victims’ contacts with the criminal justice system.
  • Hate Crime 2016



    Hate crime 2016 presents self-reported hate crime victimisation based on the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS), the Politicians’ Safety Survey (PTU) and the School Survey on Crime (SUB), as well as statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives.
  • Police working methods to prevent serial partner violence – focus on the perpetrator of violence



    One of the Swedish Government’s gender policy goals is to end men’s violence against women. The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has studied police working methods for preventing men’s serial partner violence against women, as well as approaches and working methods aimed at persuading the perpetrators of violence to cease the violence.
  • Reintegration assistance after prison



    Within three years of release from prison, two out of five persons commit a new offence sanctionable by prison or probation. The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has studied the Prison and Probation Service’s work with special reintegration assistance measures in Sweden.
  • Parental liability to pay damages for children’s criminal offences



    In 2010, parents with custody of a child became subject to more rigorous liability to pay damages in Sweden. In 2016, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was instructed by the Government to evaluate the reform.
  • Follow the money



    This anthology on the asset-oriented approach is intended to function as a handbook where several key actors help to spread knowledge about how to deal with these issues.
  • The Politician’s Safety Survey 2017



    The Politician’s Safety Survey (PTU) measures the extent and consequences of harassment, threats, and violence experienced
    by elected representatives who are exposed in their capacity as elected
    representatives.

  • Costs of Crime



    This survey shows that there is a substantial body of research regarding the costs of crime, being conducted internationally, focused variously on the costs of crime, on economic benefits of crime prevention measures, or on other anti-crime measures.
  • Unlawful influence on Swedish Migration Authority personnel



    This report addresses how the Swedish Migration Agency and its personnel are subject to unlawful influence in the form of harassment, threats, violence, vandalism, improper offers, and attempts at cronyism.
  • Unlawful influence on public agency personnel



    The study addresses unlawful influence from external customers and clients, i.e. harassment, threats, violence, vandalism, and corruption where the victim perceives the purpose being to influence the discharge of official duties.
  • Crime trends in Sweden until 2015 – In brief



    Since 1976, Brå has published the Crime Trends in Sweden report series for the purpose of providing a current view of the trends and structure of the main types of offences. The most recent report contains descriptions and analyses of a number of types of offences until 2015. This pamphlet contains a selection of all of the information regarding crime and criminality which you can read in the report.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2016



    This report presents the overall results of the 2016 Swedish Crime Survey (Nationella trygghetsundersökningen, NTU, in Swedish). The survey covers exposure to crime, insecurity, trust in the criminal justice system, and victims’ contacts with the justice system.
  • Reducing isolation in detention



    Sweden has been the object of criticism because a significant number of persons in detention are in isolation. This report studies detention and the conditions in Swedish detention centres.
  • School Survey on Crime 2015



    The School Survey on Crime investigates crime victimisation and participation in crime, as well as other deviant behaviour among year-nine students on the basis of self-reported data.
  • Criminal networks and groups



    “Organised crime” is an expression which is used freely in public debate in Sweden. However, the term encompasses a host of different phenomena and forms of organisation, and the import of “organised crime” thus varies depending on who uses the term and how, and when, the term is used.
  • Cyber-OC – Scope and manifestation in selected EU member states



    Worldwide the digitalisation of society is proceeding rapidly, while influencing almost all areas of life. Since law-abiding society continuously interacts with digital-based devices and tools that are often connected to the internet, it would be naive to think that the criminal world would act differently.
  • Changed evidentiary requirements?



    Have judicial evidential requirements in criminal cases changed, and if so, what significance may such changes have had on the development of the person-based clearance rate?
  • Has it become more difficult to obtain person-based clearances for fraud and assault?



    Have criminal matters which the justice system has to handle become more difficult to clear, and if so, how has this affected the person-based clearance rate?
  • Elements of IT in criminal activity and the ability of the justice system to handle these



    As the use of information technology (IT) increases in society, new arenas are being opened up for criminal activities.
  • Hate Crime 2015



    Statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives and self-reported exposure to hate crime.
  • Muggings



    This study addresses robberies victimising private individuals, known as mugging, which is the most common type of robbery.
  • Support to defectors from criminal groups



    The goal of this study is to increase knowledge regarding the support which is offered to defectors around the country and to contribute to the development of efforts which will enable more people to leave criminal groups.
  • Fraud crime in Sweden



    In 2014, the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was instructed by the Government to conduct a study focused on fraud and the work to combat this type of crime. The reason given was that both victim surveys and reported crime statistics indicate that fraud is on the increase.
  • Money laundering and other money management



    The greatest volumes of illegal money appear in economic crimes. Greater focus may thus be placed on combatting economic crimes, verifying cash flows within the financial system, and investigating where this money goes.
  • Swedish Crime Survey 2015



    This report presents the overall results of the 2015 Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). The survey covers exposure to crime, insecurity, trust in the criminal justice system, and victims’ contacts with the justice system.
  • The Politician’s Safety Survey 2015



    The level of victimisation among all elected representatives is higher for the 2014 election year than for 2012. This is the third survey to measure the extent and consequences of harassment, threats, and violence experienced by elected representatives.
  • The trend in limitations of investigation 2006-2014



    Brå has been instructed by the Government to analyse how different factors may have influenced performance in the justice system in respect of investigation and prosecution. The instruction comprises three subareas of which one, the subject of this interim report, is the use of limitations of investigation.
  • Lethal violence in Sweden 1990–2014



    This report analyses all cases of completed murder, manslaughter, and assault with a lethal outcome of which the police were aware from 1990–2014. The purpose is to describe lethal violence in Sweden, both with a focus on the general trends and with a specific focus on lethal violence with firearms.
  • Organized Crime Infiltration of Legitimate Businesses in Europe



    This final report of project ARIEL is an exploratory study on the infiltration of organised crime groups in legal businesses, featuring a list of risk factors derived from an unprecedented cross-national comparative analysis.
  • Match-fixing



    The subject of this report is match-fixing, the manipulation of matches for the purpose of realising winnings on the gambling market. Sporting associations, the gambling industry, the justice system, and the media have paid increasing attention to the phenomenon in recent years.
  • Work, education and treatment in Swedish prisons



    This study covers occupational activities in Swedish prisons and evaluates the positive effects of occupational activities on the inmates and how they can be developed.
  • Insurance fraud – a study in selection



    How the insurance companies and the justice system identify and investigate insurance fraud.
  • Crime Statistics 2014



    A summary of the Swedish crime statistics for 2014.
  • Hate Crime 2014



    Statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives and self-reported exposure to hate crime.
  • Threats and violence



    A report on the victimization of occupational groups important to a democratic society.
  • Reporting back in intervention activities



    The National Council's (Brå) evaluation of the previous Government' investment in increasing the number of police showed that a rather small percentage of resources went to strengthening emergency response activities, particularly to their work with initial investigation measures.
  • The Clearance rate in Sweden and in other countries



    In this article we compare the number of reported offences per 1,000 of population in Sweden, and the proportion of cleared offences, with the corresponding figures for five other European countries.
  • Restraining orders



    The number of applications for restraining orders
    in Sweden has not changed appreciably between 2010 and 2013.


  • The certificate that opens the door to the welfare system



    What are the consequences of the interdependency of the authorities within the welfare system when it comes to preventing and fighting crime? The focus of this study is on incorrect certificates which are used to commit benefit offences and fraud.
  • Emergency phones for people at risk



    In December 2013, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was commissioned by the Government to follow up:
    • how well the emergency phones are being made available
    • the extent to which they have come into practical use anaverted danger
    • how the phones have affected victims’ sense of security and confidence in the criminal justice system.
    Unabridged original, in Swedish: Larmtelefoner för hotade (2015:7)
  • The Swedish Crime Survey 2014



    This report presents the overall results of the 2014 Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). Approximately 12,000 persons have answered the questions, giving a response rate of 61 per cent.Unabridged original, in Swedish: Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2014 (2015:1)
  • Unlawful persecution



    On 1 October 2011 a new penal provision on unlawful persecution was introduced in the Swedish Penal Code. The aim of the new provision was to incorporate the cases of repeated offences by one person against another, which did not fulfil the criteria for gross violation of integrity and gross violation of a woman’s integrity.

  • Offences committed by children



    In July 2010, a number of amendments were made to the Young Offenders Act, the overall aim being for the police to investigate a greater proportion of criminal offences committed by children, and to do so more efficiently.
  • The effects on re-offending of custodial versus non-custodial sanctions



    Systems of criminal sanctions around the world comprise both custodia and non-custodial sanctions. But what impact do custodial versus non-custodial sanctions have on the re-offending of those convicted of offences?
  • Why did increased police numbers
    not improve the clearance rate?



    The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has evaluated the initiative referred to as “20,000 Police”. The initiative involved the Swedish Police being expanded with the addition of approximately 2,500 new officers during the period 2006–2010 with the objective of improving the organisation’s results.
  • Crime Statistics 2013



    A summary of the Swedish crime statistics for 2013.

  • Hate Crime 2013



    English summary of Brå report No. 2014:14
  • CCTV Surveillance of Stureplan and Medborgarplatsen



    An evaluation of CCTV trials at Medborgarplatsen and Stureplan, two areas of Stockholm’s inner city with high rates of crime.
  • The Politician's Safety Survey



    For the second year running, a national survey has been conducted in order to measure the extent and development as well as the consequences of threats, violence and harassment experienced by elected representatives.
  • Offences in close relationships



    The results of a national survey regarding
    offences in close relationships.

  • The Swedish Crime Survey 2013



    This is a report on the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) of 2013. Nearly 13,000 people responded to questions about exposure to crime, insecurity, confidence in the criminal justice system
    and victims’ contact with the criminal justice system.

  • Police crime prevention in hot spots



    A study of two Swedish police projects that concentrated crime prevention initiatives to specific locations, known as hot spots.

  • Longer prison sentences for
    serious violent crime in Sweden



    In 2010, the Swedish Parliament passed a bill focused on increasing the severity of the sentences imposed for serious violent offences. Brå (the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention) has evaluated what effect the sentencing reform had produced.
  • Reported Corruption in Sweden



    Who corrupts, in which sectors of society can we find the bribe givers and what are they looking to accomplish? Who are the targets of corruption, where are the persons who receive improper offers, what is being offered and how do the attempts at bribery take place?
  • Corruption in government agencies



    This study focuses on corruption that seeks to influence the core domain of the work of public sector agencies – the exercise of public authority.

  • Police officers' view of the investigation of volume crime



    The purpose of this report is to listen to what employees within the police force believe stands in the way of increasing the clearance rate, primarily for volume crime, irrespective of the increased number of police officers.
  • Police officers' view of crime prevention work



    This study is based on the perceptions and opinions of the crime prevention work obtained from a large group of police officers. In two separate surveys, almost 350 local police chiefs and officers on patrol duty, among others, answered the question concerning which problems they feel are the biggest and where they feel there is room for improvement.
  • Court users' contacts with the Swedish court system



    This study analyses how different court users perceive their interactions with the courts and the courts’ handling of their cases.
  • The investment in more police officers



    Following the 2006 parliamentary elections, the new Centre-Right Swedish Government announced that the country would have 20,000 police officers by 2010. That involved an increase of more than 2,500 in the total number of officers during the intervening years. This report discusses whether the results have improved to the extent that can be expected given the magnitude of the effort.

    1. Hate Crime 2012



      English summary of Brå report No. 2013:16
    2. Crime and problem behaviours among year-nine youth in Sweden




      The surveys were conducted every second year between 1995 and 2005, and the periodicity of the survey was then shifted to every third year. The most recent survey was conducted in 2011.
      Sweden is thus one of only a few European countries that is able to describe trends in juvenile delinquency in this age-group other than by means of crime statistics alone. The studies provide a basis for studying the prevalence of participation in crime and problem behaviours during the period 1995—2011.
    3. The Swedish Crime Survey 2012



      Crime and the fear of crime are social issues that are attracting an increasing amount of attention, and the demands being made on society´s capacity to prevent these problems are increasing. There is also a growing need to monitor and analyze crime and the fear of crime.
    4. Evaluation of the Karin Project



      An evaluation of the working methods employed by the Karin Project, a project that specializes in helping women, men and child victims of violence, threats or sexual abuse by a closely related person. The project also supports children who have witnessed violence, and it can assist people who have been reported to the police.

    5. Preventing illegal export of cultural objects



      Most countries have adopted legislation for protecting against the export of certain older cultural objects. This report aims to  identify obstacles to applications for permission to export cultural objects
    6. Hate Crime 2011



      Hate crime 2011 presents details from police reports with various identified hate crime motives and exposure to racist/xenophobic and homophobic hate crimes.
    7. Non-custodial care in Sweden



      A summary of  three studies about probation in general, community service and the so-called layman supervision, which constitutes a central part of the non-institutional care system in Sweden.
    8. School Bullying, Depression and Offending Behaviour Later in Life



      This report presents a systematic review, including a number of statistical meta-analyses, of the impact of bullying on later offending and depression, with regard to both the bullies and those exposed to bullying.
    9. Preventing Repeat Victimization



      This report presents a systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis, of the effects of initiatives to prevent repeat victimization.

    10. Unlawful influence on prosecutors and judges



    11. Child rapes reported to the police



      An update and comparison of child rapes in the years 1995 and 2008.
    12. Assault offences against children aged 0—6 years



      A report on trends in reported assaults against children aged 0–6 years, during the period 2000—2009.
    13. Homicide in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden



      This report contains a comparative, descriptive analysis of the 1 577 homicide cases committed in Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands during the years 2003—2006. Differences and similarities have been studied with regards to rates and structural characteristics, giving answers to the questions of where, when and how homicide takes place as well as who the victims and perpetrators are.
    14. Crime victims' contacts with the justice system



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Brottsoffers kontakter med rättsväsendet, 2010:1.
    15. Hate crimes 2010



      In recent years, Brå has made extensive changes in the hate crime statistics, particularly in the report for 2008, where there was a change in how hate crime is defined. Some small changes have also been introduced for this year's hate crime report.
    16. Men's violence against women, honour-related violence and repression and violence in same-sex relationships



      Men's violence against women is a social problem that has gained increasing attention in Sweden over the last few decades.
    17. Hate Crimes 2009



    18. The Swedish Crime Survey 2010



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2010: Om utsatthet, trygghet och förtroende (2011:1).
    19. Neighbourhood security survey – a guide



      This is a publication for those planning to organise a neighbourhood security survey.
    20. Neighbourhood security survey – thoughts along the way



      This is a publication for supporting those partaking in a neighbourhood security survey.
    21. The importance of place in policing



      More effective crime prevention work on the part of the police would mean fewer crime victims and also significantly lower costs to society.
    22. Effectiveness of public area surveillance for crime prevention



      Security guards, place managers and defensible space are among the most used and discussed alternative forms of public surveillance, aimed at reducing and controlling crime in public spaces. But how well do they work? What does the research tell us?
    23. Treatment effectiveness in secure corrections of serious (violent or chronic) juvenile offenders



      The potential gains from treatment programs for juvenile offenders are of significant interest to the crime policy debate. This is even more the case if the youths in question have been placed in secure correctional facilities.
    24. Crime and problem behaviours among year-nine youth in Sweden



      This study is based on self-report surveys of theft, violence and other problem behaviours (such as truancy and drug use) among school students in year nine (aged fifteen).
    25. The Swedish Crime Survey 2009



      The Swedish Crime Survey covers a broad range of issues. This report presents the overall results relating to victimization, fear of crime and public confidence in the criminal justice system.-
    26. Evaluation of the K-model



      A report on how the police can work to prevent violence and alcohol abuse among young people. This is a summary of the Swedish report Utvärdering av Kronobergsmodellen, report no 2009:5.
    27. Effectiveness of programs designed to improve self-control



      Much attention has been paid in both criminology and psychology to the importance of self-control in regulating individual's antisocial, delinquent or criminal behaviour. Many programs have also been introduced to improve self-control. But how well do they work?
    28. Hate crimes 2008



      This is a summary of the Swedish report Hatbrott 2008, report no 2009:10.
    29. Fear of crime and segregation



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Otrygghet och segregation, report no 2008:16.
    30. Partner violence against women and men



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Våld mot kvinnor och män i nära relationer, report no 2009:12.
    31. Police encounters with organised crime



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Polisens möte med organiserad brottslighet, report no 2009:7.
    32. Serious violence at school



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Grövre våld i skolan, report no 2009:6.
    33. Criminal assets recovery in Sweden



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Tillgångsinriktad brottsbekämpning, report no 2008:10.
    34. The Swedish Crime Survey 2008



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2008. Om utsatthet, trygghet och förtroende, report nr 2009:2.
    35. 14 projects in the fight against organised crime



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report 14 projects in the fight against organised crime, report no 2008:22.
    36. Effectiveness of interventions with adult male violent offenders



      Interventions to prevent criminal behaviour among offenders are vital in modern societies criminal policies. A number of programs have been implemented and some of them focus on violent offender specifically. But how well do they work?
    37. Collaboration against benefit fraud



      This report is a summary of the Swedish report Samverkan mot bidragsbedrägerier, report no 2008:6.
    38. Hate crimes 2007



      This is an English summary of Brå report No 2008:15.
    39. Strategies against football-related disorder



      This is the English summary of a Swedish report on possible actions and interventions to prevent violence during sports events.
    40. The organisation of human trafficking



      Each year, hundreds of thousands of people are recruited and transported for the purpose of exploitation. The majority are women and girls, and the main purpose is sexual exploitation.
    41. Effectiveness of programmes to reduce school bullying



      Bullying has probably been a problem among children throughout the history of mankind. The past few decades have witnessed a steady increase in the number of programmes to combat bullying that have been developed and tested in school settings. But how well do they work?
    42. The influence of mentoring on reoffending



      Mentoring constitutes a method of preventing criminality and other destructive behaviours that is becoming the focus of an increasing amount of attention. The method usually involves a more experienced individual providing a young person with special needs with support, advice and guidance in order to improve the latter´s chances in life. But how well does it work?
    43. Effectiveness of treatment in reducing drug-related crime



      The principal objective of drug treatment programs is usually to reduce drug use. But do such programs also reduce crime?
    44. Poaching for large predators — conflict in a lawless land?



      An English summary of Brå report No 2007:22.
    45. Unemployment benefit fraud



      An English summary of Brå report No 2007:23.
    46. Violence against people with disabilities



    47. Effects of early family/parent training programs on antisocial behavior and delinquency



      Early family/parent training (EFPT) programmes constitute a set of methods for reducing children's behavioural problems and later delinquency that for some time have been the focus of increasing attention. But how well do they work?
    48. Where did all the money go?



    49. Discrimination in the criminal justice process in Sweden



    50. Youth and crime in the Swedish counties 1995—2005



      An English summary of Brå report No 2007:30.
    51. Effectiveness of neighbourhood watch in reducing crime



      Neighbourhood watch schemes are a common method used to prevent crime and improve levels of safety in residential areas. But how well do they work?
    52. The Swedish Crime Survey 2007



    53. Improved street lighting and crime prevention



      Finding one's bearings in relation to a constantly growing body of research and drawing one's own conclusions is often difficult. This also applies to research on the effects produced by measures intended to combat crime. Systematic meta-analyses are one means of helping people to pick their way through the jungle of research findings.
    54. Closed-circuit television surveillance and crime prevention



      Finding one´s bearings in relation to a constantly growing body of research and drawing one´s own conclusions is often difficult. This also applies to research on the effects produced by measures intended to combat crime.
    55. The Swedish Crime Survey 2006



    56. Youths and crime 1995—2005



      A translation of the Swedish report 2006:7, Ungdomar och brott åren 1995—2005.
    57. Restraining orders in Sweden



      This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Besöksförbud, report no 2007:2.
    58. The online sexual solicitation of children by adults in Sweden



      This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Vuxnas kontakter med barn via Internet, report no 2007:11
    59. Crime goes underground



      This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Brott under ytan, report no 2007:5, and deals with crimes against historical sites and remains.
    60. Receiving stolen goods



      This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Häleri, report no 2006:6.
    61. Extended use of electronic tagging in Sweden



      There has been an expansion in the use of electronic monitoring in the criminal justice arena in many countries. Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe to introduce electronic monitoring in 1994, as a way of serving short prison sentences.
    62. Threats and violence against prison and probation service staff



      This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Hot och våld mot kriminalvårdens personal, report no 2006:5.
    63. Criminal Statistics 2005



    64. Organised crime outlook Sweden



      This is a report presenting a case study which has formed part of a larger project, financed by the 2004 AGIS programme of the European Commission. It had the objective of developing a risk-based methodology for the analysis of the long-term threat from organised crime.
    65. Stalking in Sweden



      There are people who are repeatedly harassed or persecuted by another person, who threatens them, makes unwelcome visits, phones repeatedly and sends letters or e-mails with offensive contents. This is stalking.
    66. Cultural Heritage Crime



      This report contains the first Nordic study of cultural heritage crime.
    67. Stalking in Sweden



      In June of 2005 the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet — Brå) was commissioned by the Swedish Government to produce a knowledge base relating to the phenomenon known as stalking, i.e. where one person is repeatedly harassed by another individual.
    68. Narcotic drugs statistics 2004



      Official statistics over reported offenses, suspected persons and cleared-up offenses.
    69. Reinforcing restraining orders using electronic monitoring



      Electronic monitoring has been used for over two decades in connection with coercive criminal procedural measures or the sanctioning of criminal activity. This document presents the technical and legal factors that should be taken into consideration when contemplating the use of electronic monitoring for crime prevention purposes.
    70. Victim-offender mediation in Sweden in the 21st century



      In general terms mediation may be described as a method of conflict resolution whereby two parties to a dispute attempt to resolve their differences together with an independent and impartial mediator. This summary of a Swedish report on mediation, offers an overview of the current state of knowledge.
    71. Remand to the care of the social services



      The number of young offenders being sentenced to the care of the social services has increased five-fold over the past 25 years. The current report represents an update of this work, and is intended to provide an up to date picture of the content of the sanction whereby youths are remanded into the care of the social services.
    72. Criminal statistics 2004



    73. On the right track



      The aim of this survey has been to examine the ways in which the local crime prevention councils have been organised and have evolved.
    74. Intolerance



      Intolerance of minorities — which may take such forms as discrimination, harassment, vilification, threats, and physical violence — is a serious social problem.
    75. The organisational patterns of drug crime



      Money constitutes the motive force underlying drug crime. This book describes and analyses this form of crime.
    76. When accidents don't happen



      This report examines frauds against personal insurance in both the private and public sectors, and against all of the social benefits administered by the Swedish Social Insurance Administration (Försäkringskassan).
    77. International comparisons of criminal victimisation



      The International Crime Victimisation Survey, ICVS, is currently the most trustworthy source for comparing crime in different countries. The present report summarises and collates the results of the most recent survey, which was carried out in 1996.
    78. Fast-Track



    79. Exertion of an unlawful influence on public servants



    80. Electronic tagging in Sweden



      The report presents an analysis showing whether the EM-release programme has produced any effects on levels of reoffending.
    81. Crime among persons born in Sweden and other countries



    82. The use of surveillance cameras for the purpose of crime prevention



      In Sweden, the use of surveillance cameras is subject to a greater level of regulation than in many other countries; as a rule, for example, a permit is required from the county administrative board before such cameras can be used in most areas to which the general public has access. In this report, the National Council for Crime Prevention presents the first Swedish case studies of the use of surveillance cameras for the purposes of crime prevention, as well as a compilation of previous, primarily international, experiences in this area.
    83. Inmates' views on the care of drug abusers in prison



      A study on inmates' experiences of the prison and probation service´s initiative to combat drug abuse.
    84. National study of rapes reported to the police



      This study takes as its point of departure the need for a description of reported consummated rape offences (i.e. excluding offences recorded as attempted rape).
    85. Preventing cheats and fiddles



    86. The Prison and Probation Service's special drugs initiative



      In the spring of 2002, the National Prison and Probation Administration was instructed by the Swedish Government to implement a three-year initiative to combat drug abuse among prison and probation service clients.
    87. A step on the road to freedom



      The government has assigned the task of evaluating this trial project to the National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) in consultation with the National Prison and Probation Administration (Kriminalvårdsstyrelsen). This, the second progress report from this evaluation, describes the inmates' social situation following their participation in the EM release programme.
    88. The auditors' obligation to report



      In 1999, legislation was introduced requiring external auditors of Swedish joint-stock companies to report to the public prosecutor suspicions of economic offences committed by managing directors or company board members. This report examines both the auditors' attitudes towards this reporting requirement and its effects.
    89. Final account



      The current report presents a review of the work conducted in connection with the National Council's initiative on economic crime research.
    90. Methods to prevent economic crime



      Questions of crime prevention tend usually however to be directed at traditional offences, such as theft, and at specific problem areas, such as youth crime, that are also dominated by traditional forms of crime. The current report is unusual in the sense that it focuses on another type of crime altogether, namely white-collar crime or economic crime, which is the term commonly used in Sweden.
    91. A brief presentation on repeat victimisation



      Some are exposed to crime more often than others — repeat victimisation. A small group of offenders are responsible for a large proportion of all the offences committed. The same relationship is found in relation to the victims of crime; a small group of victims are exposed to crime repeatedly, and are therefore the victims of a large proportion of all the crime committed. Thus the colloquialism that lightning never strikes twice does not apply to the distribution of criminal victimisation. The repeated exposure to crime experienced by a small group of victims is found in relation to several different types of offence, including assault, robbery, car-related crime, and break-ins at schools and in shops.
    92. Graffiti



      This report presents a survey of graffiti prevention work that has been conducted in Sweden over recent years.
    93. KRIS. A survey of the organisation Criminals' Return Into Society



      The organisation known as KRIS (Criminals' Return Into Society), was formed in Stockholm in 1997 on the initiative of four individuals with a long history of involvement in crime and drug abuse. The basic idea was to form an association of people with similar experiences, which could provide a supportive network for individuals wishing to leave a life of crime and drug abuse behind them. By the spring of 2002, the national federation formed in 2000 had come to include 23 local KRIS-associations, divided into five different regions. The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has surveyed the work of the four largest associations within the KRIS organisation.
    94. Prison at liberty



      In 2001 a pilot project was initiated employing electronic monitoring for those sentenced to a prison term of at least two years. They are given the opportunity to serve the final part of their sentence — up to a maximum of four months — outside prison under electronic monitoring, also known as the EM-release programme. The National Council for Crime Prevention has been commissioned by the government to evaluate this pilot project. This first report describes the project in relation to those who started an EM-release during the first eight months of the programme.
    95. Restraining orders



      The Law on the Restraining Orders was introduced with the objective of better protecting individuals who are being persecuted and harassed. The law was introduced as a part of efforts being made to restrict incidents of violence perpetrated against women in the context of intimate relationships. The National Council for Crime Prevention has evaluated the law and its effects.
    96. Providing care for drug users in prison



      A large proportion of all drug abusers will sooner or later come into contact with the prison service. This means that the prison system constitutes one possible arena upon which to focus society´s efforts to combat drug abuse. Against this background, in 2002, the National Prison and Probation Administration was commissioned by the Swedish Government to initiate a special effort to combat drug abuse among prison service clients.
    97. Police efforts to combat drug offending



      An evaluation of the anti-drugs work carried out by the police, in order to see whether the resources involved are being used in a rational manner.
    98. An examination of Lugna Gatan's subway and "junior" programmes



      The Lugna Gatan programme in Stockholm started in 1994. The basic idea is to reduce levels of violence, vandalism and other forms of offending among youths in the county of Stockholm by means of activities run by young persons who themselves have experience of asocial behaviour and of not fitting in. This study illuminates two types of activity included in the Lugna Gatan programme.
    99. Teaching a new way of thinking



      The Cognitive Skills programme was developed in Canada during the 1980s. It provides the participants with new techniques for examining and altering the way they think, thereby facilitating a change in behaviour. It was introduced for use in the Swedish prison and probation service in 1995. The evaluation of Cognitive Skills conducted by the National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) illuminates the use of the programme in Sweden from four different perspectives.
    100. Violence against women in intimate relationships



      The main objective of this study is to make a contribution towards increasing levels of knowledge on crimes of assault reported to the police where the victims are women involved in an intimate relationship with the assailant (i.e. a husband, cohabitee, boyfriend or ‘ex´).
    101. What happens to young offenders?



      In 1999, certain changes were made to the sanctioning system for young offenders in order to augment and clarify the sanction of remand to the care of the social services. The changes were intended to better satisfy the criminal justice principles of predictability, proportionality and consistency. This is an evaluation of the changes that were made.
    102. Just in time



      It is would be wrong to characterise the road haulage industry as an unmitigated problem area characterised by extensive economic crime. But this does not mean that there aren't a number of problems that lorry drivers and hauliers are constantly trying to deal with. This report is based on in-depth interviews with 36 hauliers and long-distance lorry drivers in Sweden and Norway.
    103. A poison factory demolished



      The company BT Kemi had been manufacturing pesticides in the former sugar plant in Teckomatorp since 1965. The local population soon began reporting the leakage of chemicals into a nearby river and that the plant was emitting a nasty odour, which led various agencies to act to tighten environmental standards. The company was able to successfully circumvent and delay the implementation of these standards, however, by exploiting weaknesses in the environmental legislation.This report analyses which actors played a role in this process, which problems and solutions were presented in the debate and which of these issues then exerted influence when the new, tightened legislation came to be formulated.
    104. Crime clearance and efficiency



      Since the mid 1970s, the clear-up rate has fallen. This drop has been particularly marked and consistent since the beginning of the 1980s. At its peak in 1982, the clear-up rate lay at 41 per cent, since when it has fallen successively, reaching a low of 23 per cent in 1996. The clearance rate for the year 2000 was 26 per cent. This is an analysis of possible explanations.
    105. Economic crime



      The term economic crime is usually employed to refer to offences committed by businesses; crimes motivated by profit that take place within the framework of a legitimate business enterprise. In Sweden, in practice this means tax offences, accountancy offences and offences against creditors. These are the types of crime that account for the largest volumes of offence reports and convictions in the area of economic offending.
    106. Environmental criminal law in practice



      This report examines the question of how the criminal law works in practice as a means of controlling potentially harmful activities. The empirical data are in part comprised of a questionnaire survey of local authority supervisory agencies, county administrative boards, police and prosecutors, and in part on two further questionnaires.
    107. Hate crimes



      The concept of hate crimes is today used increasingly often as a generic term referring to crimes of a racist, xenophobic and homophobic nature. Characteristic of such crimes is that they involve a violation of human rights and run contrary to fundamental social values that regard all human beings as equals. This study describes the measures taken to prioritise hate crimes, focusing primarily on the work of the justice system.
    108. Municipal crime rates in Sweden



      There are substantial differences in the crime levels in Sweden's local authority areas, as can be seen from the official statistics of reported offences produced by the National Council for Crime Prevention. Comparisons based on these statistics do not always present a fair picture however. This report presents the results from a statistical study which compares crime levels in Sweden's local authority areas in a more sophisticated way than has been attempted before.
    109. Organised crime



      The very nature of the term ‘organised crime´ indicates that this is a type of offending conducted in more organised forms than crime in general. It involves groups of people, large or small, collaborating in order to participate in criminal activities. Their professionalism presupposes planning, a division of labour, leadership, communication and financing. But what is the nature of organised crime in Sweden?
    110. Robberies in shops and stores



      In order to generate effective measures against shop robberies, it is necessary to have reliable information relating to crimes of this kind. To date, the available knowledge on shop robberies remains relatively limited. The principle objective of the current study has been to improve knowledge on robberies of shops and stores.
    111. Crime trends in Sweden 1998-2000



      The report series Swedish Crime Trends has been published since 1976. In this year's report sixteen researchers at the National Council for Crime Prevention describe and analyse trends across a variety of offence categories, with the emphasis placed on the years 1998-2000.
    112. Exit: A follow-up and evaluation of the organisation for people wishing to leave racist and nazi groups



      The Exit project was initiated in 1998 by a person who had himself broken his ties to the White Power movement a few years earlier. The project's objectives are to help young people wishing to break out of racist and nazi groups. The National Council for Crime Prevention has been tasked by the government to follow up and evaluate the work conducted by the Exit project.
    113. From prison to a life at liberty



      The objective of this study is to examine how the prison service works to prepare prisoners for release on parole and to facilitate readjustment to life outside prison. The study follows a group of prison service clients from a point one month prior to their release from prison on parole until approximately six months after their release.
    114. Repeat victimisation



      The term repeat victimisation refers to a situation where the same person or object (such as a school or shop) is exposed to several criminal offences within a certain period of time. Research from other countries has shown that this type of victimisation is relatively common. In Sweden, however, the available knowledge on repeat victimisation is limited. The objective of this study is to add to what is known about repeat victimisation in Sweden, and to elucidate the significance of such knowledge for crime prevention work.
    115. The community police reform



      The objective of the community police reform was to change the traditional and often reactive working practices employed by the police. The reform emphasise crime prevention activities and local co-operation. The National Council for Crime Prevention has examined the community police reform and evaluated the work conducted by the police to combat everyday crime.
    116. White-collar crime research



      The hope of the National Council is that this anthology will function as a bridge between Swedish economic crime research and research being conducted elsewhere in the international community. It constitutes a means of enabling Swedish scholars to reach out to an international audience as well as enabling academics from other countries to make an impression on our own research. It is also intended to stimulate a wider audience to take an interest in this area of research.
    117. Acts of lethal violence against women in intimate relationships



      Relatively little is known about acts of lethal violence committed against women within the context of an intimate relationship in Sweden. How many victims are there of this type of offence, for example? On the basis of data covering all cases of lethal violence reported to the police during the 1990s, this compilation has been made of all information relating to cases of lethal violence against women in intimate relationships.
    118. Crimes committed while on prison leave



      The question of escapes and criminal offences occurring in association with prison leave is a contentious issue, which is brought to the fore at regular intervals. As a rule, the question is brought up when attention becomes focused on a serious crime committed in connection with prison leave. The report illuminates how the institution of prison leave has emerged and evolved, and what has been done over the years in order to reduce the risk of misconduct in association with prison leave.
    119. Crimes of a racist or xenophobic nature



      Among the provisions contained within the Swedish Penal Code, there is one that is of particular significance in relation to crimes of a racist or xenophobic nature. The law was introduced in 1948 and has existed in its current form since 1988. This law relates to the protection of groups, not of individuals. During the 1990s, there was a dramatic increase in the number of reported offences recorded by the police as agitation against a national or ethnic group.
    120. Theft, drugs and violence among ninth grade boys and girls



      This study is based on cross-sectional self-report surveys of delinquency, carried out among ninth grade pupils in 1995, 1997 and 1999. The objectives of the report are to describe the prevalence of delinquency among ninth grade boys and girls as well as developments over time (1995-1999) in the proportions of pupils reporting participation in such behaviours. The study also aims to illustrate the extent to which the pupils are themselves victimised.
    121. Manifestations of racism



      On a September day in 1995, a young man was found stabbed to death in shrubbery near the centre of a small town in Skåne, southern Sweden, called Klippan. The man turned out to be an asylum-seeker from the Ivory Coast. This is a study of the processes and factors that led to the murder, as well as of open expressions of racism and Nazism in the area.
    122. Juvenile robbery in Malmö and Stockholm



      The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has carried out a study of juvenile robbery in Malmö and Stockholm. The study is partly based on statistics relating to robberies reported to the police during the latter part of the 1990s, and partly on a questionnaire survey administered in the autumn of 1999.
    123. From major swindles to minor fiddles



      This report presents and discusses international research into economic crime. The presentation includes concrete research findings as well as both attendant theoretical perspectives and other prominent themes. The principle focus is directed at internationally recognised, empirically based research, primarily produced in the Anglo-Saxon countries.
    124. Prohibition of the purchase of sexual services



      The Act (1998:408) prohibiting the purchase of sexual services came into effect on January 1st 1999, criminalising anyone who purchases or attempts to purchase a casual sexual relation. Persons committing such acts may be penalised by means of fines or a maximum of six months imprisonment. The aim of this study is to chart the way this new law has been implemented.
    125. Strategic offences



      One of the more important tasks of crime policy is to reduce the level of recruitment into criminal lifestyles. In order to achieve this, it is important to identify as quickly as possible those offences whose appearance early on in a criminal career indicates a long and serious subsequent career in delinquency. The principle objective of this study is to identify those debut offences which indicate a high risk for a continued criminal career, and those indicating a lower risk. It is thus a question of identifying what are generally known as ‘strategic offences´.
    126. The criminalisation of narcotic drug misuse



      The number of persons prosecuted for drug offences during a five-year period from the introduction of the more severe punishment in 1993 has risen by 40 percent compared with the previous five-year period. Those who have been prosecuted have largely committed minor drug offences. The present report evaluates the consequences of the legislative changes made in 1988 and 1993 for the justice system's action against drug misuse.
    127. The probability of being sentenced to a prison term



      Official conviction statistics indicate that there are relatively large differences between counties as regards the proportion of district court judgements resulting in prison sentences. During the three year period from 1995-1997, this proportion lay at an average of 23 per cent for the whole of Sweden. The current study is based on the country´s district courts and examines the differences between them.
    128. The sanction system for young offenders



      Since 1965, the societal response to young offending has been regulated primarily by the Act (1964:167) containing specific provisions for young offenders (LUL). Over the past two decades, a number of reforms to this law have been passed. The aim of this report is to describe developments in the sanction system over the past two decades, and in particular to highlight the effects of reforms to the LUL.
    129. Victim-offender mediation



      Mediation with crime is a way of bringing perpetrators together with their victims in the presence of an impartial mediator. The theoretical point of departure for mediation is that perpetrators shall be given an opportunity to understand and take responsibility for the consequences of their offences. In addition, the opportunity shall be given for victims to work through the experience of being a victim, and for the immediate community to reinforce social control. The National Council for Crime Prevention has evaluated the trial with mediation projects for youthful offenders in different parts of the country.
    130. Violent assault on children



      In Sweden, the number of reported assaults against children aged 0 to 6 registered by the police has increased substantially during the 1990s. Offences committed by a perpetrator known to the child more than doubled, for example, between the years 1990 and 1998 (from 330 to 709 reported offences). The study's objective is to provide new insights into this form of crime and also to attempt to discover the causes behind the substantial increase in the number of reported assaults against children registered by the police during the 1990s.
    131. Mediation



      Early in 1998 the Ministry of Justice gave the National Council for Crime Prevention the task of initiating and evaluating mediation trials for young offenders. The final results are to be revealed in March 2000. The purpose of the present report is to examine the effects that mediation can have on young offenders. The present study deals with offenders' experiences and perceptions of mediation, together with their insights into the consequences for the victims of their actions.
    132. Release from prison



      The National Council for Crime Prevention has been requested to chart the efforts made by the prison and probation service and other relevant administrations to ensure that prisoners have accommodation, any necessary financial support, work, and opportunities for education, vocational training, and treatment for substance abuse on release. The survey is to take account of efforts made prior to and after release from prison.
    133. Cross-national comparison of crime statistics



      The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet — Brå) has the task of producing the official statistics for the Swedish justice system in a way that allows for the conduct of cross-national comparisons.
    134. Crime among motorcycle gangs



      In the summer of 1997, the Ministry of Justice assigned the Committee for Crime Prevention Work to support Helsingborg's municipality in its efforts to develop a local crime prevention plan of action to deal with criminality among the motorcycle gangs. The municipality also wanted the Committee's support in making a survey of what was known about criminal motorcycle gangs. The Committee handed over the assignment to the National Council for Crime Prevention.
    135. Youth, drugs and police strategies



      In the last few years, young people's experimental use of narcotics has often attracted attention in Sweden. Findings from annual surveys of young people's drug habits indicate that the use of drugs among youth has increased. In the public debate regarding this issue, it has been emphasised that forceful efforts must be made to thwart this negative trend in development. Furthermore, in the Government authorities' directives for the police, the fight against narcotics has been given a high priority. This report presents the results of two investigations of the police's preventive strategies as regards the narcotics problem among youth.
    136. An evaluation of the 1994 changes in legislation on driving whilst under the influence of alcohol



      The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was requested by the government to evaluate the 1994 legislative changes concerning various aspects of the offence of gross drunken driving. The evaluation was required to take account of the costs and consequences of the changes, to give special attention to whether traffic safety had been improved, to ascertain whether the courts' choice of sanction had been influenced by the changed legislation and whether the rate of relapse into drunken driving had changed.