Have judicial evidential requirements in criminal cases changed, and if so, what significance may such changes have had on the development of the person-based clearance rate?
Have criminal matters which the justice system has to handle become more difficult to clear, and if so, how has this affected the person-based clearance rate?
As the use of information technology (IT) increases in society, new arenas are being opened up for criminal activities.
Statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives and self-reported exposure to hate crime.
This study addresses robberies victimising private individuals, known as mugging, which is the most common type of robbery.
The goal of this study is to increase knowledge regarding the support which is offered to defectors around the country and to contribute to the development of efforts which will enable more people to leave criminal groups.
The greatest volumes of illegal money appear in economic crimes. Greater focus may thus be placed on combatting economic crimes, verifying cash flows within the financial system, and investigating where this money goes.
This report presents the overall results of the 2015 Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). The survey covers exposure to crime, insecurity, trust in the criminal justice system, and victims’ contacts with the justice system.
The level of victimisation among all elected representatives is higher for the 2014 election year than for 2012. This is the third survey to measure the extent and consequences of harassment, threats, and violence experienced by elected representatives.
Brå has been instructed by the Government to analyse how different factors may have influenced performance in the justice system in respect of investigation and prosecution. The instruction comprises three subareas of which one, the subject of this interim report, is the use of limitations of investigation.
This report analyses all cases of completed murder, manslaughter, and assault with a lethal outcome of which the police were aware from 1990–2014. The purpose is to describe lethal violence in Sweden, both with a focus on the general trends and with a specific focus on lethal violence with firearms.
This final report of project ARIEL is an exploratory study on the infiltration of organised crime groups in legal businesses, featuring a list of risk factors derived from an unprecedented cross-national comparative analysis.
The subject of this report is match-fixing, the manipulation of matches for the purpose of realising winnings on the gambling market. Sporting associations, the gambling industry, the justice system, and the media have paid increasing attention to the phenomenon in recent years.
This study covers occupational activities in Swedish prisons and evaluates the positive effects of occupational activities on the inmates and how they can be developed.
How the insurance companies and the justice system identify and investigate insurance fraud.
A summary of the Swedish crime statistics for 2014.
Statistics on police reports with identified hate crime motives and self-reported exposure to hate crime.
A report on the victimization of occupational groups important to a democratic society.
The National Council's (Brå) evaluation of the previous Government' investment in increasing the number of police showed that a rather small percentage of resources went to strengthening emergency response activities, particularly to their work with initial investigation measures.
In this article we compare the number of reported offences per 1,000 of population in Sweden, and the proportion of cleared offences, with the corresponding figures for five other European countries.
The number of applications for restraining orders in Sweden has not changed appreciably between 2010 and 2013.
What are the consequences of the interdependency of the authorities within the welfare system when it comes to preventing and fighting crime? The focus of this study is on incorrect certificates which are used to commit benefit offences and fraud.
In December 2013, The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was commissioned by the Government to follow up: • how well the emergency phones are being made available • the extent to which they have come into practical use anaverted danger • how the phones have affected victims’ sense of security and confidence in the criminal justice system.
This report presents the overall results of the 2014 Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). Approximately 12,000 persons have answered the questions, giving a response rate of 61 per cent.
This report presents the overall results of the 2014 Swedish Crime Survey (NTU). Approximately 12,000 persons have answered the questions, giving a response rate of 61 per cent.
On 1 October 2011 a new penal provision on unlawful persecution was introduced in the Swedish Penal Code. The aim of the new provision was to incorporate the cases of repeated offences by one person against another, which did not fulfil the criteria for gross violation of integrity and gross violation of a woman’s integrity.
In July 2010, a number of amendments were made to the Young Offenders Act, the overall aim being for the police to investigate a greater proportion of criminal offences committed by children, and to do so more efficiently.
Systems of criminal sanctions around the world comprise both custodia and non-custodial sanctions. But what impact do custodial versus non-custodial sanctions have on the re-offending of those convicted of offences?
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has evaluated the initiative referred to as “20,000 Police”. The initiative involved the Swedish Police being expanded with the addition of approximately 2,500 new officers during the period 2006–2010 with the objective of improving the organisation’s results.
A summary of the Swedish crime statistics for 2013.
English summary of Brå report No. 2014:14
An evaluation of CCTV trials at Medborgarplatsen and Stureplan, two areas of Stockholm’s inner city with high rates of crime.
For the second year running, a national survey has been conducted in order to measure the extent and development as well as the consequences of threats, violence and harassment experienced by elected representatives.
The results of a national survey regarding offences in close relationships.
This is a report on the overall results of the Swedish Crime Survey (SCS) of 2013. Nearly 13,000 people responded to questions about exposure to crime, insecurity, confidence in the criminal justice system and victims’ contact with the criminal justice system.
A study of two Swedish police projects that concentrated crime prevention initiatives to specific locations, known as hot spots.
In 2010, the Swedish Parliament passed a bill focused on increasing the severity of the sentences imposed for serious violent offences. Brå (the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention) has evaluated what effect the sentencing reform had produced.
Who corrupts, in which sectors of society can we find the bribe givers and what are they looking to accomplish? Who are the targets of corruption, where are the persons who receive improper offers, what is being offered and how do the attempts at bribery take place?
This study focuses on corruption that seeks to influence the core domain of the work of public sector agencies – the exercise of public authority.
The purpose of this report is to listen to what employees within the police force believe stands in the way of increasing the clearance rate, primarily for volume crime, irrespective of the increased number of police officers.
This study is based on the perceptions and opinions of the crime prevention work obtained from a large group of police officers. In two separate surveys, almost 350 local police chiefs and officers on patrol duty, among others, answered the question concerning which problems they feel are the biggest and where they feel there is room for improvement.
This study analyses how different court users perceive their interactions with the courts and the courts’ handling of their cases.
Following the 2006 parliamentary elections, the new Centre-Right Swedish Government announced that the country would have 20,000 police officers by 2010. That involved an increase of more than 2,500 in the total number of officers during the intervening years. This report discusses whether the results have improved to the extent that can be expected given the magnitude of the effort.
English summary of Brå report No. 2013:16
The surveys were conducted every second year between 1995 and 2005, and the periodicity of the survey was then shifted to every third year. The most recent survey was conducted in 2011. Sweden is thus one of only a few European countries that is able to describe trends in juvenile delinquency in this age-group other than by means of crime statistics alone. The studies provide a basis for studying the prevalence of participation in crime and problem behaviours during the period 1995—2011.
Crime and the fear of crime are social issues that are attracting an increasing amount of attention, and the demands being made on society´s capacity to prevent these problems are increasing. There is also a growing need to monitor and analyze crime and the fear of crime.
An evaluation of the working methods employed by the Karin Project, a project that specializes in helping women, men and child victims of violence, threats or sexual abuse by a closely related person. The project also supports children who have witnessed violence, and it can assist people who have been reported to the police.
Most countries have adopted legislation for protecting against the export of certain older cultural objects. This report aims to identify obstacles to applications for permission to export cultural objects
Hate crime 2011 presents details from police reports with various identified hate crime motives and exposure to racist/xenophobic and homophobic hate crimes.
A summary of three studies about probation in general, community service and the so-called layman supervision, which constitutes a central part of the non-institutional care system in Sweden.
This report presents a systematic review, including a number of statistical meta-analyses, of the impact of bullying on later offending and depression, with regard to both the bullies and those exposed to bullying.
This report presents a systematic review, including a statistical meta-analysis, of the effects of initiatives to prevent repeat victimization.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2011. Om utsatthet, trygghet och förtroende, report nr 2012:2.
An update and comparison of child rapes in the years 1995 and 2008.
A report on trends in reported assaults against children aged 0–6 years, during the period 2000—2009.
This report contains a comparative, descriptive analysis of the 1 577 homicide cases committed in Finland, Sweden and the Netherlands during the years 2003—2006. Differences and similarities have been studied with regards to rates and structural characteristics, giving answers to the questions of where, when and how homicide takes place as well as who the victims and perpetrators are.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Brottsoffers kontakter med rättsväsendet, 2010:1.
In recent years, Brå has made extensive changes in the hate crime statistics, particularly in the report for 2008, where there was a change in how hate crime is defined. Some small changes have also been introduced for this year's hate crime report.
Men's violence against women is a social problem that has gained increasing attention in Sweden over the last few decades.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2010: Om utsatthet, trygghet och förtroende (2011:1).
This is a publication for those planning to organise a neighbourhood security survey.
This is a publication for supporting those partaking in a neighbourhood security survey.
More effective crime prevention work on the part of the police would mean fewer crime victims and also significantly lower costs to society.
Security guards, place managers and defensible space are among the most used and discussed alternative forms of public surveillance, aimed at reducing and controlling crime in public spaces. But how well do they work? What does the research tell us?
The potential gains from treatment programs for juvenile offenders are of significant interest to the crime policy debate. This is even more the case if the youths in question have been placed in secure correctional facilities.
This study is based on self-report surveys of theft, violence and other problem behaviours (such as truancy and drug use) among school students in year nine (aged fifteen).
The Swedish Crime Survey covers a broad range of issues. This report presents the overall results relating to victimization, fear of crime and public confidence in the criminal justice system.-
A report on how the police can work to prevent violence and alcohol abuse among young people. This is a summary of the Swedish report Utvärdering av Kronobergsmodellen, report no 2009:5.
Much attention has been paid in both criminology and psychology to the importance of self-control in regulating individual´s antisocial, delinquent or criminal behaviour. Many programs have also been introduced to improve self-control. But how well do they work?
This is a summary of the Swedish report Hatbrott 2008, report no 2009:10.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Otrygghet och segregation, report no 2008:16.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Våld mot kvinnor och män i nära relationer, report no 2009:12.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Polisens möte med organiserad brottslighet, report no 2009:7.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Grövre våld i skolan, report no 2009:6.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Tillgångsinriktad brottsbekämpning, report no 2008:10.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Nationella trygghetsundersökningen 2008. Om utsatthet, trygghet och förtroende, report nr 2009:2.
This report is a summary of the Swedish report 14 projects in the fight against organised crime, report no 2008:22.
Interventions to prevent criminal behaviour among offenders are vital in modern societies criminal policies. A number of programs have been implemented and some of them focus on violent offender specifically. But how well do they work?
This report is a summary of the Swedish report Samverkan mot bidragsbedrägerier, report no 2008:6.
This is an English summary of Brå report No 2008:15.
This is the English summary of a Swedish report on possible actions and interventions to prevent violence during sports events.
Each year, hundreds of thousands of people are recruited and transported for the purpose of exploitation. The majority are women and girls, and the main purpose is sexual exploitation.
Bullying has probably been a problem among children throughout the history of mankind. The past few decades have witnessed a steady increase in the number of programmes to combat bullying that have been developed and tested in school settings. But how well do they work?
Mentoring constitutes a method of preventing criminality and other destructive behaviours that is becoming the focus of an increasing amount of attention. The method usually involves a more experienced individual providing a young person with special needs with support, advice and guidance in order to improve the latter´s chances in life. But how well does it work?
The principal objective of drug treatment programs is usually to reduce drug use. But do such programs also reduce crime?
An English summary of Brå report No 2007:22.
An English summary of Brå report No 2007:23.
Early family/parent training (EFPT) programmes constitute a set of methods for reducing children´s behavioural problems and later delinquency that for some time have been the focus of increasing attention. But how well do they work?
An English summary of Brå report No 2007:30.
Neighbourhood watch schemes are a common method used to prevent crime and improve levels of safety in residential areas. But how well do they work?
Finding one's bearings in relation to a constantly growing body of research and drawing one's own conclusions is often difficult. This also applies to research on the effects produced by measures intended to combat crime. Systematic meta-analyses are one means of helping people to pick their way through the jungle of research findings.
Finding one´s bearings in relation to a constantly growing body of research and drawing one´s own conclusions is often difficult. This also applies to research on the effects produced by measures intended to combat crime.
A translation of the Swedish report 2006:7, Ungdomar och brott åren 1995—2005.
This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Besöksförbud, report no 2007:2.
This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Vuxnas kontakter med barn via Internet, report no 2007:11
This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Brott under ytan, report no 2007:5, and deals with crimes against historical sites and remains.
This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Häleri, report no 2006:6.
There has been an expansion in the use of electronic monitoring in the criminal justice arena in many countries. Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe to introduce electronic monitoring in 1994, as a way of serving short prison sentences.
This report is an English summary of the Swedish report Hot och våld mot kriminalvårdens personal, report no 2006:5.
This is a report presenting a case study which has formed part of a larger project, financed by the 2004 AGIS programme of the European Commission. It had the objective of developing a risk-based methodology for the analysis of the long-term threat from organised crime.
There are people who are repeatedly harassed or persecuted by another person, who threatens them, makes unwelcome visits, phones repeatedly and sends letters or e-mails with offensive contents. This is stalking.
This report contains the first Nordic study of cultural heritage crime.
In June of 2005 the Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet — Brå) was commissioned by the Swedish Government to produce a knowledge base relating to the phenomenon known as stalking, i.e. where one person is repeatedly harassed by another individual.
Official statistics over reported offenses, suspected persons and cleared-up offenses.
Electronic monitoring has been used for over two decades in connection with coercive criminal procedural measures or the sanctioning of criminal activity. This document presents the technical and legal factors that should be taken into consideration when contemplating the use of electronic monitoring for crime prevention purposes.
In general terms mediation may be described as a method of conflict resolution whereby two parties to a dispute attempt to resolve their differences together with an independent and impartial mediator. This summary of a Swedish report on mediation, offers an overview of the current state of knowledge.
The number of young offenders being sentenced to the care of the social services has increased five-fold over the past 25 years. The current report represents an update of this work, and is intended to provide an up to date picture of the content of the sanction whereby youths are remanded into the care of the social services.
The aim of this survey has been to examine the ways in which the local crime prevention councils have been organised and have evolved.
Intolerance of minorities — which may take such forms as discrimination, harassment, vilification, threats, and physical violence — is a serious social problem.
Money constitutes the motive force underlying drug crime. This book describes and analyses this form of crime.
This report examines frauds against personal insurance in both the private and public sectors, and against all of the social benefits administered by the Swedish Social Insurance Administration (Försäkringskassan).
The International Crime Victimisation Survey, ICVS, is currently the most trustworthy source for comparing crime in different countries. The present report summarises and collates the results of the most recent survey, which was carried out in 1996.
The report presents an analysis showing whether the EM-release programme has produced any effects on levels of reoffending.
In Sweden, the use of surveillance cameras is subject to a greater level of regulation than in many other countries; as a rule, for example, a permit is required from the county administrative board before such cameras can be used in most areas to which the general public has access. In this report, the National Council for Crime Prevention presents the first Swedish case studies of the use of surveillance cameras for the purposes of crime prevention, as well as a compilation of previous, primarily international, experiences in this area.
A study on inmates' experiences of the prison and probation service´s initiative to combat drug abuse.
This study takes as its point of departure the need for a description of reported consummated rape offences (i.e. excluding offences recorded as attempted rape).
In the spring of 2002, the National Prison and Probation Administration was instructed by the Swedish Government to implement a three-year initiative to combat drug abuse among prison and probation service clients.
The government has assigned the task of evaluating this trial project to the National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) in consultation with the National Prison and Probation Administration (Kriminalvårdsstyrelsen). This, the second progress report from this evaluation, describes the inmates' social situation following their participation in the EM release programme.
In 1999, legislation was introduced requiring external auditors of Swedish joint-stock companies to report to the public prosecutor suspicions of economic offences committed by managing directors or company board members. This report examines both the auditors' attitudes towards this reporting requirement and its effects.
The current report presents a review of the work conducted in connection with the National Council's initiative on economic crime research.
Questions of crime prevention tend usually however to be directed at traditional offences, such as theft, and at specific problem areas, such as youth crime, that are also dominated by traditional forms of crime. The current report is unusual in the sense that it focuses on another type of crime altogether, namely white-collar crime or economic crime, which is the term commonly used in Sweden.
Some are exposed to crime more often than others — repeat victimisation. A small group of offenders are responsible for a large proportion of all the offences committed. The same relationship is found in relation to the victims of crime; a small group of victims are exposed to crime repeatedly, and are therefore the victims of a large proportion of all the crime committed. Thus the colloquialism that lightning never strikes twice does not apply to the distribution of criminal victimisation. The repeated exposure to crime experienced by a small group of victims is found in relation to several different types of offence, including assault, robbery, car-related crime, and break-ins at schools and in shops.
This report presents a survey of graffiti prevention work that has been conducted in Sweden over recent years.
The organisation known as KRIS (Criminals' Return Into Society), was formed in Stockholm in 1997 on the initiative of four individuals with a long history of involvement in crime and drug abuse. The basic idea was to form an association of people with similar experiences, which could provide a supportive network for individuals wishing to leave a life of crime and drug abuse behind them. By the spring of 2002, the national federation formed in 2000 had come to include 23 local KRIS-associations, divided into five different regions. The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has surveyed the work of the four largest associations within the KRIS organisation.
In 2001 a pilot project was initiated employing electronic monitoring for those sentenced to a prison term of at least two years. They are given the opportunity to serve the final part of their sentence — up to a maximum of four months — outside prison under electronic monitoring, also known as the EM-release programme. The National Council for Crime Prevention has been commissioned by the government to evaluate this pilot project. This first report describes the project in relation to those who started an EM-release during the first eight months of the programme.
The Law on the Restraining Orders was introduced with the objective of better protecting individuals who are being persecuted and harassed. The law was introduced as a part of efforts being made to restrict incidents of violence perpetrated against women in the context of intimate relationships. The National Council for Crime Prevention has evaluated the law and its effects.
A large proportion of all drug abusers will sooner or later come into contact with the prison service. This means that the prison system constitutes one possible arena upon which to focus society´s efforts to combat drug abuse. Against this background, in 2002, the National Prison and Probation Administration was commissioned by the Swedish Government to initiate a special effort to combat drug abuse among prison service clients.
An evaluation of the anti-drugs work carried out by the police, in order to see whether the resources involved are being used in a rational manner.
The Lugna Gatan programme in Stockholm started in 1994. The basic idea is to reduce levels of violence, vandalism and other forms of offending among youths in the county of Stockholm by means of activities run by young persons who themselves have experience of asocial behaviour and of not fitting in. This study illuminates two types of activity included in the Lugna Gatan programme.
The Cognitive Skills programme was developed in Canada during the 1980s. It provides the participants with new techniques for examining and altering the way they think, thereby facilitating a change in behaviour. It was introduced for use in the Swedish prison and probation service in 1995. The evaluation of Cognitive Skills conducted by the National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) illuminates the use of the programme in Sweden from four different perspectives.
The main objective of this study is to make a contribution towards increasing levels of knowledge on crimes of assault reported to the police where the victims are women involved in an intimate relationship with the assailant (i.e. a husband, cohabitee, boyfriend or ‘ex´).
In 1999, certain changes were made to the sanctioning system for young offenders in order to augment and clarify the sanction of remand to the care of the social services. The changes were intended to better satisfy the criminal justice principles of predictability, proportionality and consistency. This is an evaluation of the changes that were made.
It is would be wrong to characterise the road haulage industry as an unmitigated problem area characterised by extensive economic crime. But this does not mean that there aren't a number of problems that lorry drivers and hauliers are constantly trying to deal with. This report is based on in-depth interviews with 36 hauliers and long-distance lorry drivers in Sweden and Norway.
The company BT Kemi had been manufacturing pesticides in the former sugar plant in Teckomatorp since 1965. The local population soon began reporting the leakage of chemicals into a nearby river and that the plant was emitting a nasty odour, which led various agencies to act to tighten environmental standards. The company was able to successfully circumvent and delay the implementation of these standards, however, by exploiting weaknesses in the environmental legislation.This report analyses which actors played a role in this process, which problems and solutions were presented in the debate and which of these issues then exerted influence when the new, tightened legislation came to be formulated.
Since the mid 1970s, the clear-up rate has fallen. This drop has been particularly marked and consistent since the beginning of the 1980s. At its peak in 1982, the clear-up rate lay at 41 per cent, since when it has fallen successively, reaching a low of 23 per cent in 1996. The clearance rate for the year 2000 was 26 per cent. This is an analysis of possible explanations.
The term economic crime is usually employed to refer to offences committed by businesses; crimes motivated by profit that take place within the framework of a legitimate business enterprise. In Sweden, in practice this means tax offences, accountancy offences and offences against creditors. These are the types of crime that account for the largest volumes of offence reports and convictions in the area of economic offending.
This report examines the question of how the criminal law works in practice as a means of controlling potentially harmful activities. The empirical data are in part comprised of a questionnaire survey of local authority supervisory agencies, county administrative boards, police and prosecutors, and in part on two further questionnaires.
The concept of hate crimes is today used increasingly often as a generic term referring to crimes of a racist, xenophobic and homophobic nature. Characteristic of such crimes is that they involve a violation of human rights and run contrary to fundamental social values that regard all human beings as equals. This study describes the measures taken to prioritise hate crimes, focusing primarily on the work of the justice system.
There are substantial differences in the crime levels in Sweden's local authority areas, as can be seen from the official statistics of reported offences produced by the National Council for Crime Prevention. Comparisons based on these statistics do not always present a fair picture however. This report presents the results from a statistical study which compares crime levels in Sweden's local authority areas in a more sophisticated way than has been attempted before.
The very nature of the term ‘organised crime´ indicates that this is a type of offending conducted in more organised forms than crime in general. It involves groups of people, large or small, collaborating in order to participate in criminal activities. Their professionalism presupposes planning, a division of labour, leadership, communication and financing. But what is the nature of organised crime in Sweden?
In order to generate effective measures against shop robberies, it is necessary to have reliable information relating to crimes of this kind. To date, the available knowledge on shop robberies remains relatively limited. The principle objective of the current study has been to improve knowledge on robberies of shops and stores.
The report series Swedish Crime Trends has been published since 1976. In this year's report sixteen researchers at the National Council for Crime Prevention describe and analyse trends across a variety of offence categories, with the emphasis placed on the years 1998-2000.
The Exit project was initiated in 1998 by a person who had himself broken his ties to the White Power movement a few years earlier. The project's objectives are to help young people wishing to break out of racist and nazi groups. The National Council for Crime Prevention has been tasked by the government to follow up and evaluate the work conducted by the Exit project.
The objective of this study is to examine how the prison service works to prepare prisoners for release on parole and to facilitate readjustment to life outside prison. The study follows a group of prison service clients from a point one month prior to their release from prison on parole until approximately six months after their release.
The term repeat victimisation refers to a situation where the same person or object (such as a school or shop) is exposed to several criminal offences within a certain period of time. Research from other countries has shown that this type of victimisation is relatively common. In Sweden, however, the available knowledge on repeat victimisation is limited. The objective of this study is to add to what is known about repeat victimisation in Sweden, and to elucidate the significance of such knowledge for crime prevention work.
The objective of the community police reform was to change the traditional and often reactive working practices employed by the police. The reform emphasise crime prevention activities and local co-operation. The National Council for Crime Prevention has examined the community police reform and evaluated the work conducted by the police to combat everyday crime.
The hope of the National Council is that this anthology will function as a bridge between Swedish economic crime research and research being conducted elsewhere in the international community. It constitutes a means of enabling Swedish scholars to reach out to an international audience as well as enabling academics from other countries to make an impression on our own research. It is also intended to stimulate a wider audience to take an interest in this area of research.
Relatively little is known about acts of lethal violence committed against women within the context of an intimate relationship in Sweden. How many victims are there of this type of offence, for example? On the basis of data covering all cases of lethal violence reported to the police during the 1990s, this compilation has been made of all information relating to cases of lethal violence against women in intimate relationships.
The question of escapes and criminal offences occurring in association with prison leave is a contentious issue, which is brought to the fore at regular intervals. As a rule, the question is brought up when attention becomes focused on a serious crime committed in connection with prison leave. The report illuminates how the institution of prison leave has emerged and evolved, and what has been done over the years in order to reduce the risk of misconduct in association with prison leave.
Among the provisions contained within the Swedish Penal Code, there is one that is of particular significance in relation to crimes of a racist or xenophobic nature. The law was introduced in 1948 and has existed in its current form since 1988. This law relates to the protection of groups, not of individuals. During the 1990s, there was a dramatic increase in the number of reported offences recorded by the police as agitation against a national or ethnic group.
This study is based on cross-sectional self-report surveys of delinquency, carried out among ninth grade pupils in 1995, 1997 and 1999. The objectives of the report are to describe the prevalence of delinquency among ninth grade boys and girls as well as developments over time (1995-1999) in the proportions of pupils reporting participation in such behaviours. The study also aims to illustrate the extent to which the pupils are themselves victimised.
On a September day in 1995, a young man was found stabbed to death in shrubbery near the centre of a small town in Skåne, southern Sweden, called Klippan. The man turned out to be an asylum-seeker from the Ivory Coast. This is a study of the processes and factors that led to the murder, as well as of open expressions of racism and Nazism in the area.
The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) has carried out a study of juvenile robbery in Malmö and Stockholm. The study is partly based on statistics relating to robberies reported to the police during the latter part of the 1990s, and partly on a questionnaire survey administered in the autumn of 1999.
This report presents and discusses international research into economic crime. The presentation includes concrete research findings as well as both attendant theoretical perspectives and other prominent themes. The principle focus is directed at internationally recognised, empirically based research, primarily produced in the Anglo-Saxon countries.
The Act (1998:408) prohibiting the purchase of sexual services came into effect on January 1st 1999, criminalising anyone who purchases or attempts to purchase a casual sexual relation. Persons committing such acts may be penalised by means of fines or a maximum of six months imprisonment. The aim of this study is to chart the way this new law has been implemented.
One of the more important tasks of crime policy is to reduce the level of recruitment into criminal lifestyles. In order to achieve this, it is important to identify as quickly as possible those offences whose appearance early on in a criminal career indicates a long and serious subsequent career in delinquency. The principle objective of this study is to identify those debut offences which indicate a high risk for a continued criminal career, and those indicating a lower risk. It is thus a question of identifying what are generally known as ‘strategic offences´.
The number of persons prosecuted for drug offences during a five-year period from the introduction of the more severe punishment in 1993 has risen by 40 percent compared with the previous five-year period. Those who have been prosecuted have largely committed minor drug offences. The present report evaluates the consequences of the legislative changes made in 1988 and 1993 for the justice system's action against drug misuse.
Official conviction statistics indicate that there are relatively large differences between counties as regards the proportion of district court judgements resulting in prison sentences. During the three year period from 1995-1997, this proportion lay at an average of 23 per cent for the whole of Sweden. The current study is based on the country´s district courts and examines the differences between them.
Since 1965, the societal response to young offending has been regulated primarily by the Act (1964:167) containing specific provisions for young offenders (LUL). Over the past two decades, a number of reforms to this law have been passed. The aim of this report is to describe developments in the sanction system over the past two decades, and in particular to highlight the effects of reforms to the LUL.
Mediation with crime is a way of bringing perpetrators together with their victims in the presence of an impartial mediator. The theoretical point of departure for mediation is that perpetrators shall be given an opportunity to understand and take responsibility for the consequences of their offences. In addition, the opportunity shall be given for victims to work through the experience of being a victim, and for the immediate community to reinforce social control. The National Council for Crime Prevention has evaluated the trial with mediation projects for youthful offenders in different parts of the country.
In Sweden, the number of reported assaults against children aged 0 to 6 registered by the police has increased substantially during the 1990s. Offences committed by a perpetrator known to the child more than doubled, for example, between the years 1990 and 1998 (from 330 to 709 reported offences). The study's objective is to provide new insights into this form of crime and also to attempt to discover the causes behind the substantial increase in the number of reported assaults against children registered by the police during the 1990s.
Early in 1998 the Ministry of Justice gave the National Council for Crime Prevention the task of initiating and evaluating mediation trials for young offenders. The final results are to be revealed in March 2000. The purpose of the present report is to examine the effects that mediation can have on young offenders. The present study deals with offenders' experiences and perceptions of mediation, together with their insights into the consequences for the victims of their actions.
The National Council for Crime Prevention has been requested to chart the efforts made by the prison and probation service and other relevant administrations to ensure that prisoners have accommodation, any necessary financial support, work, and opportunities for education, vocational training, and treatment for substance abuse on release. The survey is to take account of efforts made prior to and after release from prison.
The Swedish National Council for Crime Prevention (Brottsförebyggande rådet — Brå) has the task of producing the official statistics for the Swedish justice system in a way that allows for the conduct of cross-national comparisons.
In the summer of 1997, the Ministry of Justice assigned the Committee for Crime Prevention Work to support Helsingborg's municipality in its efforts to develop a local crime prevention plan of action to deal with criminality among the motorcycle gangs. The municipality also wanted the Committee's support in making a survey of what was known about criminal motorcycle gangs. The Committee handed over the assignment to the National Council for Crime Prevention.
In the last few years, young people's experimental use of narcotics has often attracted attention in Sweden. Findings from annual surveys of young people's drug habits indicate that the use of drugs among youth has increased. In the public debate regarding this issue, it has been emphasised that forceful efforts must be made to thwart this negative trend in development. Furthermore, in the Government authorities' directives for the police, the fight against narcotics has been given a high priority. This report presents the results of two investigations of the police's preventive strategies as regards the narcotics problem among youth.
The National Council for Crime Prevention (Brå) was requested by the government to evaluate the 1994 legislative changes concerning various aspects of the offence of gross drunken driving. The evaluation was required to take account of the costs and consequences of the changes, to give special attention to whether traffic safety had been improved, to ascertain whether the courts' choice of sanction had been influenced by the changed legislation and whether the rate of relapse into drunken driving had changed.